Gujarat (Gujarati: ગુજરાત, Hindi: गुजरात, Gujǎrāt, - [ɡudʒ(ə)ɾat] ( listen)) is a state in western India. It has an area of 75,686 sq mi (196,077 km²) with a coastline of 1,600 km, most of which lies on theKathiawar peninsula, and a population in excess of 50 million. The state is bordered by Rajasthanto the north, Maharashtra to the south, Madhya Pradesh to the east and the Arabian Sea as well as the Pakistani province of Sindh on the west. Its capital is Gandhinagar, while its largest city isAhmedabad. Gujarat is home to the Gujarati-speaking people of India.
The state encompasses major sites of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, such as Lothal andDholavira. Lothal is believed to be one of the world's first ports. Gujarat's coastal cities, chieflyBharuch, served as ports and trading centers in the Maurya and Gupta empires. Mohandas Gandhi, considered India's "father of the nation", was a Gujarati who led the Indian Independence Movementagainst the British colonial rule.
Gujarat played an important role in the economic history of India throughout the history of India.The state has the fastest growing economy in India. It is also one of the most industrialized states of India, and has a per capita GDP almost twice that of the national average.